A3986/ S2643 – “Idaho Stop” Talking Points

ghostbike Victor J. Blue Bicycling MagazineVictor J. Blue, “What’s Really Killing New York’s Cyclists,” Bicycling.com

A3986 / S2643

• A person operating a bicycle approaching a stop sign shall slow down and, if required for safety, stop before entering the intersection. After slowing to a reasonable speed or stopping, the person shall yield the right-of-way to any vehicle and pedestrians if required, before proceeding.

• A person operating a bicycle approaching a steady red traffic-control signal shall stop before entering the intersection and shall yield to all other traffic. Once the person has stopped, the person may proceed through the steady red traffic-control signal with caution.


Twenty seven NYC cyclists were killed in traffic crashes in 2019—eighteen more than 2018 and the most since 1999.  This is despite NYC adding hundreds of miles of protected bike lanes and reducing the speed limit to 25 mph.  

These measures aren’t enough to ensure cyclists’ safety.  Laws governing cyclist behavior need to be updated to reflect how cyclists actually use the road and what they do to avoid being killed. If we expect people to obey the law, we should not have laws which puts them in harm’s way.

Protect Cyclists from Trucks

Of the NYC cyclist deaths in 2019, more than half involved commercial vehicles—many “hooked” at intersections. Empowering cyclists to exit intersections in the absence of cross-traffic allows them to get out of blind spots and to establish visibility on the road ahead.

In 2007, Transport for London found that, despite being outnumbered 3-1, women cyclists were killed by trucks three times as often as men.  Researchers posited that women were more likely to obey traffic signals and be caught in a truck driver’s blind spot.

Enhance Cyclist Safety

In March, 2022, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration concluded that bicycle stop-as-yield laws enhanced cyclist safety in states where they were evaluated.

Idaho, which passed similar legislation in 1982, has the third fewest fatalities per 10,000 bicycle commuters in the U.S. based on data from 2011-2015.  This is despite Idaho ranking 47th on federal funds spent on bike—walk improvements.

The first year after Idaho passed its bill, bike injuries declined 14.5%.  In Delaware crashes involving bicycles at stop sign–controlled intersections fell 23% in the 30 months after the Bicycle Friendly Act was passed in 2017.

Refocus Enforcement 

The NYPD wrote 35,000 moving violations to cyclists in 2019—which is more than for trucks which figured in 43 of the 220 road deaths that year and which represent 10% of all city traffic.

By tightening the scope of existing law, we enable law enforcement to focus on egregious behavior such as failing to: “respect pedestrian right-of-way in a crosswalk” and “to maintain speed appropriate to the circumstance.” 

Enhance Pedestrian Safety


In 2018, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration reported 6,200 pedestrians (and 850 bicyclists) killed in crashes with motor vehicles in the U.S.  

In 2018, NHTSA didn’t record any pedestrians killed by bikes. So, increasing bicycle mode share will directly correspond to decrease in pedestrian fatalities.

In the Netherlands, a nation famous for high bicycle mode share, the pedestrian fatality rate in 2019 was 34 per million—70% lower than in the U.S.

This has been proven true in NYC—while there has been a sharp rise in cycling over the past decade, only a handful of pedestrian fatalities have attributed to cyclists.

Since 2018, NYC cyclists have been allowed to proceed at red traffic signals during the leading pedestrian interval—effectively behavior envisioned by S920/A3104. That change has triggered no rise in complaints by motorists or pedestrians.

A 1/23 academic analysis of motorist behavior based on game theory argued that intersections governed by three-way stops were inherently safer than four-way. This implies that the bill would reduce motorist fatalities as well.

Reduce Cyclist Exposure to Car Exhaust 

A 2010 Belgian study found that cyclist exposure to particulants is 4.3 times greater than occupants of cars.  The study concluded that enabling cyclists to increase the distance from cars’ exhaust pipe reduces that exposure.

In 2016, a Harvard and University of North Carolina study linked over two thousand premature deaths across New York to high levels of particulate matter and ozone.

In 2020, the American Lung Association graded Bronx, Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, Staten Island, Suffolk and Westchester an “F” for air quality.

In 2022, scientists analyzing satellite data of thirteen U.S. cites found that the poorest areas experienced significantly higher levels of pollution than their wealthier counterparts. In New York and Newark, 26% greater.

In addition to reducing cyclists’ exposure, any increase in bicycle mode share will broadly improve air quality and reduce premature deaths.

Share the Benefits of Road Construction With Those who Foot the Bill

Non-motorists pay half the cost of road construction and maintenance, they deserve a decent infrastructure and enlightened legislation so they may safely share the benefits.

random-shot-of-second-ave2nd Avenue, NYC.  Image Google Maps.

Maximize Return on Bike Infrastructure

New York has invested billions of dollars bike infrastructure—Mario M. Cuomo Bridge ($400 million), Hudson Greenway ($1 billion), Walkway Over the Hudson ($40 million), Empire State Trail ($200 million).  Making cycling safer and easier will increase throughput and grow the constituency for further improvements.

Because cyclists take up so little space and consume so few resources, growing bicycle mode share reduces the need to invest in more expensive transit modes and more expensive strategies to reduce CO2 emissions from transportation.

Enable Bike Routes on Secondary Roads

Allowing cyclists to yield-and-go at signed intersections will facilitate use of secondary roads to create a network of urban bikeways. This will extend resident access to green space, yielding significant public health improvements.

Grayways 18

Grayways – 500 miles of recreational bikeways connecting city parks

Enhance Resident Access Green Space and Grow Tourism

Cycle tourism added $97 billion to the U.S. economy in 2017.  Per capita, that’s half a billion dollars per year in New York State.

New York City houses 800,000 cyclists, but has few recreational facilities not crowded with runners and walkers.  This constituency is a captive market for state-local tourism, including neighborhood food shops who’d see a surge in customers.

We need to do more in New York State to make cyclists feel safe if we want bicycle tourism to work here. New York has an image problem when it comes to cyclists and their safety. Passing S920/A3104 will help to change that.” – Lukas Herbert, Owner, Gotham Bicycle Tours

Also see the resource page, which includes links to legislation text, videos of how comparable legislation works in other states and organizations in support.

Neile Weissman, 2022